360 degree appraisals are often held up to be one of the most useful tools when seeking and obtaining feedback to inform personal development, and the appraisal process.
Their strength lies in them being a forum where peers, direct reports (juniors), members of the wider team, secretarial staff and other clinicians get to highlight not the clinical knowledge, but the day to day working of an individual.
These forms are usually anonymous, collated by a third party and then discussed with an educational supervisor who reveals some or all of the comments received.
As I understand it, 360s allow individuals to appreciate their impact on others, how they influence and work in a team, and provide a substrate to enhance reflection, and from there, personal development.
In true edu-babble speak, 360s help to “open your Johari window.”
Over the last few years I have heard several stories of people who have been pulled up in ARCP and RITA interviews for marginally negative comments in the free text of the 360s. Some have even been told that to have a less than perfect record on the 360 exercise is a threat to future employment.
I have a few difficulties accepting that this is the right approach to helping people develop.
Firstly, trainees are people, they are human and have human attributes. The people they work with are also humans and where there are lots of personalities, ambitions, emotions and stress, people will occasionally have differences of opinion and disagree with each other. To expect that trainees will go through life as perfect automatons with little in the way of character which will challenge those they work with is, I feel to be exceedingly naive. When I look at the people who I have worked with who are successful, are pushing boundaries, innovating and progressing medical science, I don’t see timid individuals who will simply get on with people for an easy life; I see ambitious, driven individuals who are not afraid of ruffling a few feathers to ensure that they get the resources they need, the access to services, or the time of others. Medical science would not be what it is today without the innovators and positive deviants. As Aristotle said: to avoid criticism, say nothing, do nothing – be nothing.
Secondly, the idea that the 360 exercises should all be perfect is to deny the trainees the opportunity to explore how they affect those around them, their impact on other team members, and how they appear to the outside world. Instead of being a tool for revealing attributes which might require consideration, reflection and development, the tool becomes one which reinforces the status quo and fails to fulfil its intended role. Instead of being a tool for revealing aspects of ones personality and behaviour, it becomes a whitewash, masquerading as a genuine assessment, but in truth being only a paper exercise. ( and to keep on with the greek quotes – Socrates pointed out that “The unexamined life is not worth living”)
In addition, the feedback given is often in a poor format. There are usually general statements, covering a broad sweep of behaviours and impresions, rather than being issue-specific. Worse still, feedback can focus on who the person is, rather than the actions they have taken. Feedback should try to concentrate on actual events, not inference and speculation. The general comments often offered are not always helpful for a trainee to think about. More helpful, and a better substrate for examining ones behaviour, are examples of specific situations where a behaviour has influenced others – either for better or for worse. Even better if the impact of the behaviour can be explained. eg. when X said this after it happened, it made me feel Y, because of Z. (This article and this pdf have some interesting ideas and principles for good feedback)
So – next time you are filling out a 360 form, be honest, but give real feedback that will help the person receiving it – preferably with a specific example of when a behaviour resulted in a particular outcome.
If you are giving out the forms – be bold, discover something about yourself and don’t just ask your mates to be “nice” to you.
Finally, if you are reviewing the 360 appraisal of a trainee, please don’t tell them it must be perfect – it is unrealistic, unreasonable, and results in a charade which helps no-one.